In a TV address, Spain's King Felipe VI (6th) has condemned organisers of Catalonia's independence referendum for having put themselves "outside the law".
He said the situation in Spain was "extremely serious", calling for unity.
Hundreds of thousands in Catalonia have been protesting over Spanish police violence during Monday's vote, during which nearly 900 people were hurt.
Meanwhile, Catalonia's leader told the BBC the autonomous region would declare independence in a matter of days.
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